About 50km exterior South Africa’s greatest metropolis, Johannesburg, lies some of the essential websites in human prehistory: the Cradle of Humankind. Right here, at websites just like the Sterkfontein Caves, Swartkrans, Drimolen and Kromdraai, researchers have unearthed superb fossil proof from the Plio-Pleistocene (the final 5 million years). It’s particularly well-known for the invention of fossilized hominin—historical human—stays.
However there’s a newer and largely uncared for layer to the panorama’s historical past. My colleagues and I got down to examine some archaeological traces present in a part of the Cradle of Humankind. We centered on a stone-walled construction on a hill often known as Driefontein; the title additionally given to the positioning we studied.
Our findings counsel that the Driefontein stone-walled construction was a residential space. It seems just like settlements discovered elsewhere in South Africa’s North West province and elements of Botswana relationship to between AD 1450 and 1700, although sure options probably counsel a later date. These findings place the settlement’s occupation broadly inside the “Tswana” interval. This refers to roughly the final 500 years of historical past when Tswana communities, a southern African ethnic group, arose.
Whereas the prehistoric sequence of the Cradle of Humankind operates at a number of ranges spanning a really lengthy time period, a disproportionate quantity of assets have been allotted to research regarding human evolution and early stone instrument applied sciences.
Whereas this has world significance, our work is essential, too, as a result of it sheds gentle on heritage traces that reveal a lot about individuals’s each day lives. It additionally helps us perceive native, traumatic pasts which concerned colonial oppression, land dispossession and racial insurance policies.
Cultural stays corresponding to these discovered at Driefontein enable archaeology to peel again historic discourse to disclose individuals’s pasts that aren’t preserved in some other approach.
Mapping the settlement
Our work on the settlement concerned an intensive mapping program performed over 4 successive visits. Initially we decided the general dimension of the settlement, so as to plan our discipline program, after which we examined the format of the homestead’s dry-packed stone-walled structure.
To document the positioning, maps had been produced utilizing a mix of handheld GPSs and a Trimble Station; these use satellites to document geo-specific factors that may be rendered digitally to resemble the settlement’s construction and options.
Mapping the positioning is informative; as constructing designs as we speak differ between individuals and over time, so did previous stone-walled buildings. By learning the format of the settlement, we are able to then try to find out who occupied the positioning and when. Archaeologists have been doing this from the Sixties and there’s a pretty good document of what the several types of websites appear to be.
By inspecting the construction of Driefontein, we might then match its structure to typologies developed over the previous 60 years and decide when it was occupied. We will additionally infer using totally different areas of the positioning.
There are different methods of doing this, corresponding to via ceramic evaluation or archaeological excavations, however at Driefontein only a few objects stay on the floor and there’s no excavatable deposit.
Nonetheless, two middens had been recognized. These had been used as dump websites and infrequently comprise worthwhile archaeological materials corresponding to ceramic sherds, meals waste, and private ornaments. Sadly, at Driefontein this was not the case; this meant that learning the partitions’ format was the one viable approach of studying extra concerning the historical past of the positioning.
Driefontein consists of two distinct areas; what we name west and east. Each have giant round buildings exterior the primary walled space. These could have been kraals (enclosures) for livestock. The principle parts of the 2 areas each have an inside walled space with separate smaller enclosures connected. Round it is a discontinuous and scalloping boundary wall. Between it and the internal enclosure are as much as 20 particular person huts, together with a number of with exterior terraces. These are indicated by upright rocks erected in a round form with extensions the place terraces exist.
There are additionally grain bin foundations within the neighborhood of a number of huts, that are related in building to the huts however are far smaller.
Based mostly on the proof, in addition to the middens and a small assortment of earthenware ceramics, the Driefontein stone-walled construction was a residential space. The construction seems just like settlements relationship to between AD 1450 and 1700. Nonetheless, sure options—notably the upright rocks across the huts and lintels within the exterior round buildings—have been recognized at websites with a later date. This probably means that Driefontein is youthful than we could anticipate.
Although the settlement’s occupation falls inside the “Tswana” interval, naming the occupants as Tswana is sophisticated. That is as a result of Tswana historical past shouldn’t be linear or direct. Relatively, there are intervals of migration, political progress and assimilation. Tswana origins are additionally unclear. At instances, oral histories observe a number of lineages and totems with a number of totally different teams showing and mixing with others.
When trying again at early archaeological sequences, corresponding to often is the case at Driefontein, figuring out “Tswana” teams is, for these causes, fairly difficult. Nonetheless, based mostly on the proof, we imagine Driefontein was probably occupied by Tswana-like teams after about AD 1450.
This venture was performed with the involvement of the present landowners of the Nirox Sculpture Park and Challenge 58, the place the positioning is positioned. Their curiosity within the website and openness to researchers is what in the end led to us studying extra of the area’s prehistory.
Our work is much from over. Future research at Driefontein will assist to additional acknowledge newer complicated histories, identities and pasts that overlay the deep-time sequences preserved within the Cradle of Humankind’s cave techniques.
Center Stone Age populations repeatedly occupied West African coast
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A forgotten settlement within the Cradle of Humankind provides a observe to southern African historical past (2021, March 29)
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